The Japanese apprentice carpenter is not taught directly. He must “steal knowledge”. The hard work and dedication of the apprentice to the accomplishment of small and mundane tasks would eventually allow his introduction to the greater mysteries of the craft. In gradually learning by doing, the novice would hope to become known not only as a qualified carpenter but also as a craftsman, or shokunin, which connotes physical skill as well as spiritual and ethical understanding. The master carpenter would demand loyalty, so that his secrets would not be stolen after his investment in training the apprentice. The apprentice would live in the master’s home and the master carpenter would be seen as an adoptive parent. From an early age, Japanese are made aware of their social obligations towards parents and superiors. Certainly, many apprentices in Japanese history were disciplined by beatings and physical abuse. Apprentice carpenters were also obliged to the care of tools and materials, and it was through skillful work and diligence that these valuable resources were not damaged or wasted.